Barokkfiolin

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Barokk-rigga Jacob Stainer-fiolin frå 1658.

Ein barokkfiolin er, etter vanleg bruk av ordet, ein fiolin der halsen, gripebrettet, stolen og strengehaldaren er utforma slik dei typisk sett var under barokken og til dels klassisismen. Slike instrument kan inndelast i fire hovudgruppor:

  1. gamle instrument som vart bygd i perioden og som aldri har vorte ombygd;
  2. nybygde instrument som er bygd som kopiar i barokk stil;
  3. gamle instrument som vart bygd i perioden, deretter ombygd, og i nyare tid tilbakeført til barokk stil;
  4. gamle instrument som vart bygd i nyare stil (f.eks. på 1800-talet), og som har vorte ombygd til barokk stil.

Barokkfiolinen i sine olike variantar er éin av fleire historiske variantar av strykeinstrument som no står sentralt i rørsla for historisk oppføringspraksis som gradvis har vorte vanlegare frå tidleg på 1900-talet av. Barokkfiolinen kom inn seinare enn cembalo, gambe og blokkfløyte, men kring 1980 begynte han å bli vanlegare òg.

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Konstruksjon

Typiske forskjellar frå moderne fiolinar inkluderer: kortare og tynnare bassbjelke, noko tjukkare hals som er parallell med lokket, kortare gripebrett som nokre gonger er kileforma, og dessutan noko olikt utforma stol.

Hakebrett, finstemmarar og skulderstøttor var ikkje bruka føre etter at barokken og klassisismen var over.

Rigging

Spelestil

(Usortert)

Following period practices, most baroque violinists use gut strings. This lends a certain purity and even at times earthiness to the sound. Baroque violinists commonly play their instruments without a chin rest or shoulder rest, as they had not yet been invented in the baroque period. The relaxed and natural baroque violin posture is quite different as compared with the more poised modern violin position. The baroque violin is usually positioned more in front of the player than the modern violin, with the strings often running perpendicular to the player's collarbone. This causes the player's bow arm to be positioned differently as well, facilitating articulations which would be difficult and less natural in a modern violin posture. Some players do not touch their chin to the instrument at all. However, when used, the player's chin is usually placed on the treble side of the tailpiece.

The biggest difference between the modern and baroque violins is the tension of the strings and the pressure on the bridge. Most old Masterviolins have had new necks fitted - transplanting the original headstocks - that were slanted backwards so the strings would make a more acute angle on the bridge. Baroque violins have their necks in line with the underside of the plate the necessary upward angle is achieved by a wedge-shaped raiser under the fingerboard. There is a small difference in scaling: the modern standard is somewhat longer. Baroque bows are also quite different in construction and how they are handled. The modern violin bow curves downward in the middle while the baroque bow will look straight or bent outwards under tension. The baroque bow is thinner near the tip which comes to an exaggerated point. The common myth that the so-called Bach-bow had a huge exaggerated arch shape so as to play all four strings at once remains unsubstantiated.[1] Although the convex bows found in paintings may appear to be for the purpose of playing all four strings at once, the testing of period and replica convex bows quickly shows that this is an impossibility.

Baroque violins have surged in popularity since the 1980s as part of the growing interest in authentic performance. Their renewed use reflects an attempt to rediscover the original style of violin playing in the baroque period. Many luthiers today are able to offer copies of baroque instruments as well as modern instruments. As is always the case with period instruments, merely having authentic equipment does not necessarily guarantee a persuasive performance. Typically, period instrument players receive extensive university training in the style and often use original treatises and facsimile editions as a necessary resource. With an increased openness to period performance practice, many modern violinists prefer to concertize baroque music on the modern violin in a period style. This practice is referred to as HIP, or Historically Informed Performance.

Konsertmeistrar, solistar eller professorar i barokkfiolin i nyare tid

Fotnotar

  1. Pritchett, James: «On Bach and the curved bow», Princeton, 6. desember 1994 – 21. januar 1995, nedlasta 8. september 2006.


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