Gurmukhī

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  4. Rām Dās
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Skrifter
Gurū Granth Sāhib

Bāṇī - «Tjåpaī»
«Djāp Sāhib»
«Djapdjī Sāhib»
«Mul mantra»
«Sukhmani»

Dasam Granth

Filosofi
simran
(Guds sanning)

sēvā (dugnad,
frivillig arbeid)

tre søylor

  1. Nām djapō
    (gudstjeneste)
  2. kirat karni
    (ærleg arbeid)
  3. vaṇḍ tjakkō
    (del goda)
fem vonde
  1. kām
    (blind attrå)
  2. krōdh
    (raseri)
  3. lōbh
    (grådigheit)
  4. mōh (blind
    materialisme)
  5. ahankar
    (arroganse)
fem gode
  1. sat
    (sanning)
  2. santōkh
    (tilfredsheit)
  3. daya
    (medkjensle)
  4. nimrata
    (audmjukskap)
  5. pyārē
    (kjærlegheit)
Khalsā

Pandj kakkē:
1 kēsj (uklipt hår)
2 kāṛā (stålarmband)
3 kanghā (stålkam)
4 katjhā (underbrok)
5 kirpān (sabel)

Helige plassar
Amritsar
Harimandir Sāhib
(«Det gylne tempelet»)
gurduārā
Folk og språk
Pandjāb - sikhar
pandjābī - gurmukhī
Gurū Granth Sāhib, den helige boka i sikhismen, er skreva med gurmukhīskrift.
Stasjonsskilt med både latinsk alfabet og gurmukhīskrift frå Southall i London. (Foto: Júlio Reis)

Gurmukhī (ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) er skrifta som oftast blir bruka til å skrive på språket pandjābī. Skrifta er utvikla frå den seine sjāradāskrifta, som i sin tur har opphav i brāhmīskrifta, og vart standardisert av den andre sikh-gurūen, gurū Angād Dēv, på 1500-talet. Alle dei 1430 sidone av Gurū Granth Sāhib er skrevne i gurmukhī. Sjølve namnet gurmukhī, klassisk pandjābī guramukhī, betyder ‘frå gurū-munnen’. Moderne gurmukhī har 31 konsonantar (viandjan), ni vokaltekn (lāga mātrā), to olike tekn för nasallydar (bindī og ṭippī) og eitt tekn (addak) som doblar lengda av ein kva för helst slags konsonant. I tillegg blir fire samensette konsonantar bruka: Konsonantane rara, haha og vava har eigne former som blir sett under konsonanten dei kjem rett etter; og yayya har ei halvform som blir sett rett til høgre för konsonantar han kjem rett etter. Bruken av samensett vava og yayya blir stadig sjeldnare i moderne samenhengar.

Gurmukhīskrifta har òg vorte tilrettelagt för å skrive andre språk, slik som bridj bhāsjā, khaḷī bōlī (og andre hindūstānīdialektar), sanskrit og sindhī.

Innhaldsliste

Opphav

Gurmukhīskrifta vart systematisert på 1500-talet av gurū Angād Dēv, den andre sikhgurūen. Ho var basert på laṇḍā-skrifta.

Fellestrekk med andre indiske skriftsystem:

  • Gurmukhī er ei stavingsskrift der alle konsonantar har ein implisitt vokal. Diakritiske tekn, som kan stå over, under, före eller etter konsonanten, blir bruka för å endre den implisitte vokalen.
  • I stavingar som begynner med vokal blir vokalane markert med eigne vokaltekn.
  • Ved visse konsonantkombinasjonar blir spesielle, kombinerte tekn som kombinerer trekk frå kvar konsonant i kombinasjonen bruka.

Særtrekk ved gurmukhīskrifta:

Den her artikkelen er ikkje ferdig omsett enno.

Det finst to hovudteoriar om kossen proto-gurmukhīskrifta oppstod på 1500-talet. G.B. Singh (1950), while quoting Abu Raihan Al-Biruni's Ta'rikh al-Hind (1030 AD), says that the script evolved from Ardhanagari. Al-Biruni writes that the Ardhanagari script was used in Bathinda, including Sindh and western parts of the Punjab in the 10th century. For some time, Bhatinda remained the capital of the kingdom of Bhatti Rajputs of the Pal clan, who ruled North India before the Muslims occupied the country. Because of its connection with the Bhattis, the Ardhanagari script was also called Bhatachhari. According to Al-Biruni, Ardhanagari was a mixture of Nagari, used in Ujjain and Malwa, and Siddha Matrika or the Siddham script, a variant of the Sharada script used in Kashmir.

Pritam Singh (1992) has also traced the origins of Gurmukhi to the Siddha Matrika.

Tarlochan Singh Bedi (1999) writes that the Gurmukhi script developed in the 10-14th centuries from the Devasesha stage of the Sharada script. His argument is that from the 10th century, regional differences started to appear between the Sharada script used in Punjab, the Hill States (partly Himachal Pradesh) and Kashmir. The regional Sharada script evolves from this stage till the 14th century, when it starts to appear in the form of Gurmukhi. Indian epigraphists call this stage Devasesha, while Bedi prefers the name Pritham Gurmukhi or Proto-Gurmukhi.

Gurus adopted the Proto-Gurmukhi script to write the Guru Granth Sahib, the religious scriptures of the Sikhs. Other contemporary scripts used in the Punjab were Takri and the Mal:Unicode alphabets. Also Takri was a script that developed through the Devasesha stage of the Sharada script, and is found mainly in the Hill States, such as Chamba, where it is called Chambyali and in Jammu, where it is known as Dogri. The local Takri variants got the status of official scripts in some of the Punjab Hill States, and were used for both administrative and literary purposes until the 19th century. After 1948, when Himachal Pradesh was established as an administrative unit, the local Takri variants were replaced by Devanagari.

Meanwhile, the mercantile scripts of Punjab known as the Mal:Unicode were normally not used for literary purposes. Landa means alphabet "without tail", applying that the script did not have vowel symbols. In Punjab, there were at least ten different scripts classified as Mal:Unicode, Mahajani being the most popular. The Mal:Unicode alphabets were used for household and trade purposes. Compared to the Mal:Unicode, Sikh Gurus favoured the use of Proto-Gurmukhi, because of the difficulties involved in pronouncing words without vowel signs.

The usage of Gurmukhi letters in Guru Granth Sahib meant that the script developed its own orthographical rules. In the following epochs, Gurmukhi became the prime script applied for literary writings of the Sikhs. Later in the 20th century, the script was given the authority as the official script of the Eastern Punjabi language. Meanwhile, in Western Punjab a form of the Urdu script, known as Shahmukhi is still in use.

Ordet gurmukhī

The word Gurmukhi is commonly translated as "from the Mouth of the Guru". However, the term used for the Punjabi script has somewhat different connotations. The opinion given by traditional scholars is that as the Sikh holy writings, before they were scribed, were uttered by the Gurus, they came to be known as Gurmukhi or the "Utterance of the Guru". And consequently, the script that was used for scribing the utterance was also given the same name. However, the prevalent view among Punjabi linguists is that as in the early stages the Gurmukhi letters were primarily used by Gurmukhs, or the Sikhs devoted to the Guru, the script came to be associated with them. Another view is that as the Gurmukhs, in accordance with the Sikh belief, used to meditate on the letters ਵ, ਹ, ਗ, ਰ which jointly form ਵਾਹਿਗੁਰੂ or God in Sikhism, these letters were called Gurmukhi or the "speech of the Gurmukhs". Subsequently, the whole script came to be known as Gurmukhi.

Alfabetet

The Gurmukhi alphabet contains thirty-five distinct letters. The first three letters are unique because they form the basis for vowels and are not consonants. Except for Aira, the first three characters are never used on their own. See the section on vowels for further details.

Name Pron. Name Pron. Name Pron. Name Pron. Name Pron.
Ura Aira Iri Sussa Sa Haha Ha
Kakka Ka Khukha Kha Gugga Ga Ghugga Gha Ungga Nga
Chuchaa Ca Chhuchha Cha Jujja Ja Jhujja Jha Neya Nya
Tainka Tta Thutha Ttha Dudda Dda Dhudda Ddha Nahnha Nna
Tutta Ta Thutha Tha Duda Da Dhuda Dha Nunna Na
Puppa Pa Phupha Pha Bubba Ba Bhubba Bha Mumma Ma
Yaiyya Ya Rara Ra Lulla La Vava Va Rharha Rha

In addition to these, there are six consonants created by placing a dot (bindi) at the foot (pair) of the consonant (these are not present in Sri Guru Granth Sahib):

Name Pron.
ਸ਼ Sussa pair bindi Sha
ਖ਼ Khukha pair bindi Khha
ਗ਼ Gugga pair bindi Ghha
ਜ਼ Jujja pair bindi Za
ਫ਼ Phupha pair bindi Fa
ਲ਼ Lulla pair bindi Lla

Lulla pair bindi was only recently added to the Gurmukhi alphabet. Some sources may not consider it a separate letter.

Vokalar

Gurmukhi follows similar concepts to other Brahmi scripts and as such, all consonants are followed by an inherent ‘a’ sound (unless at the end of a word when the ‘a’ is usually dropped). This inherent vowel sound can be changed by using dependent vowel signs which attach to a bearing consonant. In some cases, dependent vowel signs cannot be used – at the beginning of a word or syllable for instance – and so an independent vowel character is used instead.

Independent vowels are constructed using three bearer characters: Ura (ੳ), Aira (ਅ) and Iri (ੲ). With the exception of Aira (which represents the vowel 'a') they are never used without additional vowel signs.

Vowel Name IPA
Ind. Dep. with /k/ Letter Unicode
(none) Mukta A IPA
ਕਾ Kanna AA IPA
ਿ ਕਿ Sihari I IPA
ਕੀ Bihari EE IPA
ਕੁ Onkar U IPA
ਕੂ Dulankar OO IPA
ਕੇ Lavan IPA
ਕੈ Dulavan AIR IPA
ਕੋ Hora O IPA
ਕੌ Kanora OA IPA

Dotted circles represent the bearer consonant. Vowels are always pronounced after the consonant they are attached to. Thus, Sihari is always written to the left, but pronounced after the character on the right.

Vokaleksempel

Word Transcription Meaning
ਆਲੂ ālū potato
ਦਿਲ dil heart
ਗਾਂ cow

Halant

The Halant (੍) character is not used when writing Punjabi in Gurmukhi. However, it may occasionally be used in Sanskritised text or in dictionaries for extra phonetic information. When it is used, it represents the suppression of the inherent vowel.

The affect of this is shown below:

ਕ – Ka
ਕ੍ – K

Talsymbol

Gurmukhi has its own set of numerals that behave exactly as Hindu-Arabic numerals do. These are used extensively in older texts. In modern contexts, they are being replaced by standard Latin numerals although they are still in widespread use.

0 - ੦
1 - ੧
2 - ੨
3 - ੩
4 - ੪
5 - ੫
6 - ੬
7 - ੭
8 - ੮
9 - ੯

Andre tekn

Bindi (ਂ) and Tippi (ੰ) are used for nasalisation (similar to the ‘n’ sound in words ending in ‘ing’). In general, Onkar (ੁ) and Dulankar (ੂ) take Bindi in their initial forms and Tippi when used after a consonant. All other short vowels take Tippi and all other long vowels take Bindi. Older texts may not follow these conventions.

The use of Addak (ੱ) indicates that the following consonant is geminate. This means that the subsequent consonant is doubled or reinforced.

Visarg

The Visarg symbol (ਃ U+0A03) is used very occasionally in Gurmukhi. It can either represent an abbreviation (like period is used in English) or it can act like a Sanskrit Visarga where a voiceless ‘h’ sound is pronounced after the vowel.

Ek Onkar

Ek Onkar (ੴ) is a Gurmukhi symbol that is often used in Sikh literature. It literally means ‘One God’.

Gurmukhī i Unicode

The Unicode range for Gurmukhi is U+0A00 to U+0A7F. Using Unicode for Gurmukhi has only recently started to become widespread. Many sites still use proprietary fonts that convert Latin ASCII codes to Gurmukhi glyphs.

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
A00            
A10    
A20  
A30   ਲ਼   ਸ਼         ਿ
A40                
A50                   ਖ਼ ਗ਼ ਜ਼   ਫ਼  
A60            
A70                      

Bibliografi

Following books/articles have been written on the origins of the Gurmukhi script (all in the Punjabi language):

Gurbaksh (G.B.) Singh. Gurmukhi Lipi da Janam te Vikas. Chandigarh: Punjab University, 1950.

Ishar Singh Tãgh, Dr. Gurmukhi Lipi da Vigyamulak Adhiyan. Patiala: Jodh Singh Karamjit Singh.

Kala Singh Bedi, Dr. Lipi da Vikas. Patiala: Punjabi University, 1995.

Kartar Singh Dakha. Gurmukhi te Hindi da Takra. 1948.

Piara Singh Padam, Prof. Gurmukhi Lipi da Itihas. Patiala: Kalgidhar Kalam Foundation Kalam Mandir, 1953.

Prem Parkash Singh, Dr. "Gurmukhi di Utpati." Khoj Patrika, Patiala: Punjabi University.

Pritam Singh, Prof. "Gurmukhi Lipi." Khoj Patrika. p.110, vol.36, 1992. Patiala: Punjabi University.

Sohan Singh Galautra. Punjab dian Lipiã.

Tarlochan Singh Bedi, Dr. Gurmukhi Lipi da Janam te Vikas. Patiala: Punjabi University, 1999.

Pekarar


GNU-logoen This article is based entirely or in part on the article Gurmukhī_script from the English Wikipedia. It may be copied, distributed and/or modified according to the conditions of the GNU Free Documentation License.
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